Roads Less Taken

A blend of programming, boats and life.

Making a Skype Interview…

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I got the opportunity to make a Skype interview with Dan Ingalls, so I decided to try to record it. Had no idea it was not as easy as a “press record”-button. I am on Ubuntu, Karmic Koala. First of all I had serious trouble getting proper sound working with Skype, I ended up following the HOWTO in order to install Skype 2.1 beta - which uses PulseAudio ONLY. That took care of that issue, after a bit of fiddling in the “Preferences” dialog you get when right-clicking on your volume applet :)

So… I did roughly this:

Record both sides of the conversation using parec. This is a tool in PulseAudio, so the recording is done “outside” of Skype. In two different files! I used this shell script to record both sides at the same time (note that this produces RAW files): parec -r -d alsa_output.pci-0000_00_1b.0.analog-stereo.monitor \ -n "Mon Rec" > mon-rec & \ parec -r -d alsa_input.pci-0000_00_1b.0.analog-stereo \ -n "Mic Rec" > mic-rec & Note that I found the alsa-yaddayadda names in… eh, some dialog somewhere! Don’t recall. Anyway, read more on this part here.

I then converted the resulting two RAW audio files into WAV using sox, some kind of audio swiss army knife. I don’t have the exact one-liner handy, but I used the options found in the link above.

Finally I mixed the two files together… eh, ah, problems… They don’t synch! Now… I have absolutely no idea how that can be, but the files end up drifting out of synch, and this seems to be a known Skype thing according to Mighty Google.

So in the end I had to manually cut/edit the two files in order to get a proper question+ answer sequence as an interview. I played with Audacity, ReZound etc but ended up doing it in Sweep, it felt simpler and didn’t cause me any other trouble.

NOTE: On “other less worthy platforms” than Linux there seems to be other options. I also found some stuff for recording on Ubuntu, but AFAICT these solutions would not work with Skype 2.1.

Well, perhaps it helps someone else out there intending to do the same journey!

Joe Is Wrong

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I just read Joe Armstrong’s old “Why OO sucks” article, Joe Armstrong being the inventor of Erlang. Granted, the article is from year 2000 I think, so perhaps I should cut him some slack… nah! :)

First of all - no, I haven’t programmed in Erlang (yet), but quite a lot of other programming languages. My favorite language is the grand father OO language - Smalltalk. So sure, I am biased in favor of OO.

I have read other criticisms of OO, and various discussions about good or bad characteristics of OO in general and in specific OO languages… Sorry, this article is IMHO not among the good ones, and my feeling is that Joe wrote it quite quickly and with no real experience in programming in OO.

But I don’t intend to say his article “sucks” without arguing for why I feel it sucks :). And also, I am in great awe of the stuff Erlang makes possible so I have great respect for Joe - but that doesn’t mean he can’t be dead wrong.

Let’s go through his article bit by bit:

“Objection 1 - Data structure and functions should not be bound together”

I quote:

“Since functions and data structures are completely different types of animal it is fundamentally incorrect to lock them up in the same cage.”

Rereading that first objection I only see kinder garten explanations of what functions and data are. I don’t see any real serious explanation of why they couldn’t be combined into objects other than “because they are different”. That is not an argument.

It is in fact quite logical to group functions and data together into objects based on their interaction patterns, if for no other reason.

Let’s say we have data structures A, B, C and D. And we have functions q, x, y, z. If you start looking at what data is read and written by these functions you may find that q and x operates only on A and B, reading one and writing the other etc. So the functions and data structures form “natural clusters”, and usually these clusters are quite intuitively modelled as objects.

Putting them together creates a boundary around this group of data and functions - encapsulation. Sure, you may call that a “module” but an object is IMHO slightly different since objects have identity, a life cycle and we can hold them, send them around etc.

So in some sense objects can probably be viewed as modules but often more fine granular. And we can combine such “modules” into larger modules (since objects have identity and can be referenced etc) and we can create and kill them dynamically (life cycle).

If I were coming from a language with a well developed “module” concept I can definitely see this as just “another step” forward.

Another interesting fact with objects having a life cycle is that since an object contains data A, B, C and D we now easily can create a whole such data “group” by just instantiating this object. And we deallocate them together as a single entity too - manually or automatically. Again, quite natural.

So ok, I can go on and on about this but since Joe didn’t really give any arguments I will stop there.

“Objection 2 - Everything has to be an object.”

Now, being a Smalltalker I wouldn’t use the phrase has to be but I can clearly see all the benefits when the paradigm is really followed through in a pure way.

Ok, but let’s look at what Joe says. He points to an example - different datatypes for describing amount of time, or well, not “amount” but in fact partial pieces of points in time. Hour (of day), minute (of hour), year etc. Without knowing Erlang these data type definitions typically define ranges of integer values valid for these types. Anyway, then his main points are:

  • These data types can be used everywhere.

  • There are no associated methods.

The first argument is odd. Let’s look at Smalltalk (or any OO language), let’s say we have a class called TimeStamp. Or Date. We can instantiate these classes from anywhere in the system, there is no reason for classes to have any less (or more) scope than data types. So objects of classes can also be used “everywhere”.

The second argument is plain dumb (sorry). No associated methods? There are TONS of interesting behavior you can attach to these kinds of objects! For a true tour de force, just look at Chronos for example. The fact that Joe can make such a claim is IMHO clearly showing that he really haven’t seen how a good OO library can work. Or I suspect ever programmed in an OO language in fact.

But if we disregard this bad example, going back to the original objection, I agree - everything does not HAVE to be an object. But a LOT of the problems in many OO languages can be traced to the fact that they still retain lots of “fundamental data types” that are not objects. And most of the modern OO languages get closer and closer to Smalltalk where almost everything really is an object, just look at Python, Ruby, Scala etc.

The object concept is very powerful and its power gets even greater when applied generously. :)

“Objection 3 - In an OOPL data type definitions are spread out all over the place.”

Ehm, sorry Joe but this one really shows poor understanding of OO languages. First of all, I presume you mean “data type definition” as an enum or similar. Or a class definition. Ok, and then you seem to say it is a pity that you can’t just put them in one single place - ehrm, but you can… but it would be rather horrendous design.

It is simple normal modularisation, you don’t want ALL data types/classes defined in a big global scope, right? I would in fact argue in the exact OPPOSITE - in an OOPL data type definitions are where they should be - close to the place of use. The modular way.

Anyway, now we come to the last paragraph - and it is simply confused. Let me quote:

“In an OOPL I have to choose some base object in which I will define the ubiquitous data structure, all other objects that want to use this data structure must inherit this object. Suppose now I want to create some “time” object, where does this belong and in which object…”

No, no, no - why would all other objects need to inherit that class? Inheritance is normally used for specialization, the mechanism you are totally missing is composition. If my Account object needs to have a TimeStamp in it - then I simply instantiate a TimeStamp and let my Account hold onto it in an instance variable. This is basic OO, chapter 1.

It is also amusing that the examples of “ubiquitous data types” mentioned are LinkedList, Array and Hashtable. All three being standard collection classes that almost all OO languages have, no problem there, sorry. Note that Erlang was created around 1990. Smalltalk was created in the late seventies and Simula in 1967. Smalltalk has worked very successfully with an “all objects” approach and having very rich and appreciated collection classes - including LinkedList, Array and Dictionary (Hashtable). It feels like Joe thinks OO came around in 1996 with Java - nope, it is in fact much older than Erlang.

“Objection 4 - Objects have private state.”

Again, confused arguments. Quote:

“OOPLs say ‘hide the state from the programmer’ ”

Well, yeah, in an encapsulation-and-modularity-is-good-kinda-way. Not in a programmers-should-not-care-or-know-kinda-way.

The argument about C/Pascal using scoping rules - ehm, well, OOPLs do too, hard to see the distinction there. Joe call’s the OO idea of encapsulation as the “worst possible choice”. But again, no real argument for why encapsulation would be a bad thing. In fact it is one of the most important aspects of OO - the ability to expose a concept - an object - in a comprehensive high level way with a nicely designed API without forcing the user to look at all the details inside. Classical black box composition, an idea older than… old :)

And no, the blackness does not have to be strict - if the programmer wants to look I say go right ahead. I am definitely not defending the pretentious protective ideas gone berzerk in languages like Java, C++ and C# where keywords like “final”, “sealed”, “private”, “protected” etc tend to simply make life miserable for the programmer who actually knows exactly what he or she is doing. But enough of that little rant, claiming that encapsulation is a BAD THING is … simply daft.

The final conclusion about why OO got popular does not hold any substance either - I am not even going into it. So all in all I think Joe is totally off in this article. :) Having said that I still look forward to learn Erlang, and since I am dabbling with CouchDB I might get my feet wet soon.

NOTE in 2011: Now I have finally met Joe and almost feel embarrassed of the above “bashing”. But only almost :)

Tirade, First Trivial Use

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Last night I started hooking Tirade into Deltas. Quick background: Deltas is “Changesets for the 21st century”, or in other words an intelligent patch system under development for Squeak. Tirade is a Smalltalk/Squeak centric “JSON”-kinda-thingy. I made Tirade in order to get a nice file format for Deltas. Just wanted to share how the first trivial code looks, and thus illustrate simple use of Tirade.

I have a DSDelta (a Delta being almost like a ChangeSet). It consists of some metadata (a UUID, a Dictionary of properties and a TimeStamp) and a DSChangeSequence (which holds the actual DSChange instances). As a first shot I only implemented the metadata bit. So step by step:

  1. Write a unit test, first let’s set up our readers and writers on a common stream:

        | stream |
        stream := RWBinaryOrTextStream on: String new.
        reader := DSTiradeReader on: stream.
        writer := DSTiradeWriter on: stream

…then a trivial write, read and compare test - note that they both look at the same stream:


            | delta same |
            delta := DSDelta new.
            writer nextPut: delta.
            reader reset.
            same := reader next.
            self assert: same = delta.
            self assert: delta timeStamp = same timeStamp.
            self assert: delta properties = same properties.
            self assert: delta uuid = same uuid
  1. Create DSTiradeWriter. It turns out that DSTiradeWriter at this point is just an empty subclass of TiradeRecorder! Eventually we might need to add behaviors but at this point there is no need. The TiradeRecorder uses DNU to intercept messages and encode them as Tirade.

  2. Implement #tiradeOn: in our domain object DSDelta. This will be used by the writer and looks like this:

    tiradeOn: recorder
            delta: uuid asString36
            stamp: timeStamp printString
            properties: properties

…here we convert the UUID to a String (base 36) and the timeStamp too. The properties Dictionary just holds “simple” data that Tirade can represent, so no need to convert it. The rule is that we make up a message (in this case #delta:stamp:properties:) which will be used in the Tirade stream, and we make sure our arguments are “Tirade proper” which basically means Booleans, Strings, Symbols, Arrays, Numbers, Associations and Dictionaries thereof. Note that the recorder being a DSTiradeWriter inherits the implementation of #doesNotUnderstand: from TiradeRecorder that will write this Tirade message onto the stream typically looking like this:

        delta: 'd71oknvt1bwswhno6iwgund07' stamp: '20 April 2009 11:20:50 am' properties: nil.

And then the final step, our reader:

  1. Creata a DSTiradeReader. We simply create an implementation of the above Tirade message #delta:stamp:properties: and put it in the method category “tirade” so that the default security mechanism is happy:

    delta: uuidString36 stamp: timeStampString properties: properties
        result := DSDelta new.
        result uuid: (UUID fromString36: uuidString36); properties: properties; timeStamp: (TimeStamp fromString: timeStampString)

…this class inherits an instvar called ‘result’, which is fine to reuse. As you see the properties needs no conversion, the others are converted from Strings.

And tada - the unit test is green! So we implemented reading and writing in more or less two lines of code. Kinda neat! :)

Tirade, Part 2

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In an article recently I described Tirade - a new generic “file format” for Smalltalk/Squeak, or actually a sub language! Since that article I have refined Tirade a bit. Tirade consists today of 4 classes (parser, reader, writer, recorder) totalling about 500 lines of code, excluding tests. Tests are green in 3.10.2, pharo-10231, 3.9, 3.8 and 3.7. It does turn red in 3.6 due to old initialize behavior, some missing methods etc, probably easily fixed if anyone cares. There are no dependencies on other packages. Compared to using the old Compiler>>evaluate: it is about 5-7 times faster.

Tirade is a very small “language” similar to JSON (see below) and probably fits similar use cases as JSON fits.


In my first Tirade description I opted out and only supported plain integers, no frills at all. Then after subsequent discussion I came to the conclusion that syntactically there is no problem to letTiradeParser>>parseInteger become TiradeParser>>parseNumber and just let it handle all kinds of Number literals that Squeak supports by either using SqNumberParser if present (in Squeak 3.9+) or by falling back on regular old Number class>>readFrom: which Scanner still uses in 3.10.2.

So now Tirade deals perfectly fine with:

  • 23.45 (Floats)

  • 16rFE (radix)

  • 1.0034e-5 (scientific notation)

  • 243s2 (scaled decimals)

  • “NaN”, “Infinity” and “-Infinity”

…and whatever else should be there.

The performance penalty if we use SqNumberParser (Squeak 3.9+) is not that bad, about 20% on my little trivial benchmark. Using Number class>>readFrom: hurts more, increasing time for benchmark around 50%.


First I played with having the builder object (that is typically fed the Tirade messages from the Tirade reader) implement isSelectorAllowed: etc. I finally ended up encoding a simple security scheme in the default TiradeReader that relies on finding the implementations of the Tirade messages in the builder in a method category beginning with “tirade”. It seems simple enough for most uses.

I also added a global “whitelist” of Tirade messages that can be registered in the reader before starting to parse. If selectors are found in this whitelist they are considered “ok”. This can be useful in some situations.

If the builder relies on catching Tirade messages using doesNotUnderstand: then it is on its own for security, but that seems fine.

Finally you can turn off all selector checks by using #unsafe:.

Receiver juggling

Tirade is meant to separate “concerns” between Tirade “code”, parser, reader and the builder object supplied by you. The Tirade “code” has no control over the receiver of the messages, Tirade “code” is just a sequential flow of messages separated with periods. The TiradeParser also doesn’t care, it just parses and then does “self processMessage”, if you are using TiradeParser directly it has a default implementation of #processMessage that prints them out in Transcript and collects them in an OrderedCollection.

So yes, you can use TiradeParser to just gobble up some Tirade input and then muck about with the OrderedCollection afterwards - similar to how you work with JSON or an XML DOM. But the better approach is of course to subclass TiradeParser and implement #processMessage to actually do something - in a streaming SAX-ish fashion.

Then we have the reader. There is a default TiradeReader that implements the security described above and also implements logic for deciding the “next receiver” of the Tirade messages. The logic goes like this:

  • If the builder supplied implements Tirade messages by always returning self, it will always be the receiver. Simple.

  • If the builder returns another object X, X will be used as the “next receiver”.

  • As long as X returns self it stays as the “next receiver”.

  • If object X returns another object Y, X will be put on a “stack of old receivers” and Y will be used as the “next receiver”.

  • If Y returns nil, X will be popped and be used as the “next receiver”.

  • If X returns nil we are back to the original builder, and if it returns nil nothing changes.

So if the above is “enough” for controlling the receivers, then the builder object handles it by simply returning the “right” objects. These objects can of course be “sub builders” or domain objects themselves or whatever.

If the above is not enough you can register “control messages” in TiradeReader. A control message can be any selector and will result in TiradeReader pushing the current receiver on the stack and setting the original builder object as the “next receiver”. There is also a small twist, if the control message returns self the reader will consider that to be equivalent to “nil” and thus pop the previous receiver back. This is because the common use is to make sure all control messages are sent to the original builder without disrupting the current stack of receivers. But… why? This enables the builder to explicitly control the reader during the parse, perhaps manipulating the current stack, even though it is not the “next receiver” receiving the regular Tirade stream of messages.

One very good reason to use this is when the current receiver is a domain object that does not “know” when to return nil to pop itself.

I am not perfectly happy with the current mechanisms, but it will do for now and I will revisit this when I see how it works out in practice. The important bits are in place though - Tirade input has no control over receivers and the builder object can control it if needed.

Compared to JSON again

The differences compared to JSON that I see right now:

  • Smalltalk syntax and parsing rules for Strings. This means no escapes except for double-single quotes. JSON has 8 other escape codes. Immediate advantage for me is able to store readable code in Tirade, including newlines.

  • Smalltalk syntax for Numbers. This means more capabilities for parsing numbers than JSON has (radix, NaN, Infinity, scaled decimals).

  • Symbols. JSON only has Strings.

  • Associations. JSON has an “object” which is a Dictionary restricted to String keys. JSON does not have a free standing Association. In Tirade any of the allowed objects can of course be keys or values and Assocations can be “standalone”. So there is a little bit of greater flexibility here.

  • Comments. Hmmm, JSON has no comments. Tirade allowed Smalltalk comments, but ONLY between messages.

  • Messages. This is the big difference, Tirade consists of a sequence of unary or keyword messages, with the “data” described above as arguments.

The addition of messages adds an important extra level of “classification”, “control” or “typing” or call it what you want. It also lends Tirade to easy streaming and concatenation. JSON consist on its top level of either a Dictionary or an Array. A parser could of course parse that in a “streaming fashion” one element or pair at a time, but they normally don’t do that I think.

Having messages of course makes it much more natural to map these messages onto a builder or multiple builders and also to use messages to control the message flow. I think this makes Tirade much more expressive in itself.

In summary, Tirade is similar to JSON but extended with messages and comments, more advanced Numbers, deals with text more easily (no escaping of CRs etc), can have comments in it, has a little bit more flexibility in data model (Associations) and uses Smalltalk syntax for it all.

Potential uses for Tirade

I started out with a focus on replacing “chunk format” with something simpler and secure for Deltas (Deltastreams project), eliminating the use of Compiler to parse it. Afterwards one can find several interesting places where Tirade could be used for example:

  • DSLs

  • RPC-ish communication

  • Transaction logs

…and a few more things :)

But hey, one thing at a time.

Tirade, a File Format for Smalltalkers

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In my revived work on Deltastreams in Squeak I ended up facing the choice of native file format for Deltas. Matthew has made an advanced format called InterleavedChangeset which manages to squeeze a binary representation of a Delta into a Changeset file (which is in Smalltalk chunk format). An impressive feat, and it has the advantage of being backwards compatible in the sense that a Delta in this format can be filed in as a plain old Changeset into an old Squeak image.

But I must say I don’t think that benefit alone is enough to justify these tricks. Oh well, time will tell - and multiple formats for Deltas are fine to have.

Looking at another file format for Deltas I decided I want these properties:

  • Readable. Changesets are nice because they are indeed readable. You can look at them in emacs if you like.

  • Editable. Same here, if you really need to you can edit changesets manually. The syntax is not totally bad.

  • Secure. Ouch, changesets fail here because they rely on Compiler>>eval: which of course opens up tons of tricks you can do. I don’t want that with Deltas.

  • Declarative. This is a spectrum but I would like the “style” for the file format to be declarative.

  • Streamable. The parser should not have to read it all into a “DOM structure” before actually doing something with it.

  • Extendable. It should be easy to extend the format in the future and have older code “ignore” such extensions.

  • Fast. It should be fast to parse and fast to produce. As always. :-)

  • Small. I mean both conceptually (easy to understand), codewise (parser etc) and syntactically.


First I looked at JSON which nails 5-6 out of these 8. It is indeed “Readable”, “Editable”, “Secure”, “Fast” and “Small”. And it is very “hip” in the web arena. It suffers from some problems though:

  • Strings can not have CRs in them, which will make “larger texts” such as source code a pure pain to read. This is a killer! Sorry.

  • It is actually not so well suited for streaming. A JSON document is a single “thing”, either a Dictionary or an Array. Sure, we could use convention and parse one key-value-pair (or element if it is an Array) at a time, but then I would need to write a new parser anyway.

  • It is declarative since it is “just data” but on the other hand this means it also lacks semantics. We would need to use Strings and keys (in key-value pairs) to denote our own semantics. Works, but probably would make the structure less apparent.

  • Same goes for extendability. Sure, we can add new keys in our key-value pairs etc, but what we really want is to be able to add new semantic elements, and again, those would need to be “encoded as data” in JSON. I think it would get messy.

…so JSON is out. I do like JSON though, in its utter simplicity and above all - it is available everywhere.

What about YAML then - JSON’s big brother? YAML is a superset of JSON, well, it aims to be a strict superset at least. I did find a very good blog article comparing them. Looking at YAML it seemed to have lots of better ways to represent source code with CRs etc, but hey… simple? Mmmm, not. Sure, it may be “simple” to look at but I sure didn’t think the specification was simple and in fact HUGE and I had a hard time reading it due to its style. Sorry, not “small” enough for me! ;-)

When discussing all this on squeak-dev the good ole “Hey, why not Smalltalk?”-mantra popped up. I have been there lots of times, using Smalltalk as “representation language” is very neat since it enables so called “internal DSLs” at such ease, but it does fail pretty hard on “Secure”, “Declarative” (depends on how you view that one, I know), “Streamable” and in some ways “Small”. Although it would be strange if we didn’t have Compiler available when dealing with Deltas :-).

Smalltalk… or Angry Smalltalk?

But bringing it up did get my mind working - how about a nice subset of Smalltalk? That does what JSON does but fixes the problems I identify above? Pretty quickly a subset of Smalltalk crystallized itself that I named “Tirade” as in:

“a long angry speech or scolding. Synonyms: diatribe, harangue, rant”

Tirade, as the name somewhat implies, is just a sequence of Smalltalk unary or keyword messages with optional Smalltalk comments inbetween.

The only thing making Tirade NOT a strict syntactic subset of Smalltalk is that there is no receiver to the left, this is up to the reader/parser to decide. One seemingly useful pattern for determining the receiver is to use the result of each message as the next receiver.

Here is a fantasy example of Tirade input:

        "We allow unary messages, the period after each message is mandatory.
        A unary message is probably used mainly for semantic structure."

        "We allow Symbols."
        push: #superbat.

          "Whitespace is just fine, so indentation can be used, but has no meaning.
          In Strings we use double single quote for a single quote. No other escaping exists."
          name: 'Bat from hell'

        'Black as devil''s tar, evil. Appear in flocks
        and when they come you better duck.
        Duck fast.'.

          "Integers are fine, positive or negative. No scientific notation, no floats."
          power: 'Can screech' damage: 3.
          power: 'Can bite' damage: -6.

          attrib: #size->43.
          attrib: #color->nil.
          attrib: #dangerous->true.

          moreattribs: { #wings-> 2 . #ears -> nil. #teeth -> {'one'.'two'.'three'}}.

        pop: #superbat.


Well, you get the idea. So source code with CRs will work fine, just like in Changesets. We could even add support for indenting Strings with embedded CRs (as you can see above they otherwise break indentation), but I haven’t done that. So we have Strings, Integers, Associations, true/false/nil and brace Arrays. Nested in any combination and depth. In Smalltalk all these are “literals” except Associations which are actually created using the message #-> sent to the key object. In Tirade it is not implemented “as a message”, but rather built into the parser. I also chose the “brace array” instead of a regular array because it has separating periods and it allows Associations inside it.

Ok, so Tirade is just a sequence of messages with “data” as arguments. And the “data” is expressed very similarly to JSON, but with Smalltalk syntax. Is this better than plain JSON? I think so:

  • We got rid of the “CR in Strings”-issue, Tirade Strings are just like Smalltalk Strings - the only escape character is doubling a single quote.

  • Tirade is streaming since we parse and process the messages “one by one” and we get IMHO better “semantics” in the form of having something more than “just data”: keyword messages.

  • Extending is easily done with new messages that old code can happily ignore at will - or capture using #doesNotUnderstand: and log or whatever.

I just created the Squeaksource project Tirade for this, the code there has both reader, writer and green tests. It also has nice class comments :-) and it is not rocket science to get going with. The parser is a simple “predictive recursive descent” parser which anyone should be able to step through and understand. It has no ambiguity and it only checks the next Character for choice of production, which made it very easy to create.

Are we there?

Did we meet our objectives we started out with? Do we have our “dream format” we want? Let’s look at it again:

  • Readable. Oh yes, and for a Smalltalker VERY readable. We have simplicity, comments, indentation, CRs inside Strings etc.

  • Editable. Definitely, for a Smalltalker VERY editable. It is Smalltalk after all.

  • Secure. Very secure. There are no expressions and no access to globals. You can only send messages with data as arguments. You do not decide the receiver, the reader does. The base reader also does a security check asking the builder if it allows the selector.

  • Declarative. Given only messages (which creates structure and semantics) with data and no full Compiler I think it is very declarative.

  • Streamable. Yep. We just keep going and going! Since the period is mandatory after a message this also means you can concatenate Tirade streams together without syntactic problems.

  • Extendable. Just add new kinds of messages, make sure the old code can ignore “new messages” either by having a tolerant #doesNotUnderstand: or by letting #isSelectorAllowed: not allow unknown messages, which then will not be sent at all.

  • Fast. My first benchmark shows TiradeParser is about 7 times faster than Compiler. It is pretty nippy.

  • Small. It is definitely small in all aspects mentioned.

Just one gripe…

Why is it not a true subset of Smalltalk - in other words, why did I leave out the receiver to the left?!? Well, since we don’t have any kind of variables there is not much you can put there! Should we still write out “self”? If we did, then it would be confusing if the reader uses the “result of message is the next receiver”-logic.

We could encode that policy by enforcing the code to say “me := me ”, but then we would need to introduce a special variable “me” and it would look hackish and odd and confusing as hell. And it would also force this logic. I think leaving receiver out is ok. :-)

So why do we so dearly want to make it BE Smalltalk? In theory it could enable us to select some Tirade code with the mouse and press “alt-d” on it, but it is still quite easy to debug Tirade code directly. If someone makes a compelling argument I am willing to listen, but for now - sorry, no, Tirade is not == Smalltalk and it does not have an explicit receiver on the left. As Jecel pointed out though, it may be legal Self code. :-)


I think Tirade has interesting potential, especially as a readable serialization or configuration (!) format for Smalltalk. For “data interchange” JSON is probably still KING because then you often need to send data across language barriers and there are JSON parsers everywhere. Tirade is a Squeak only thing, although should be trivially portable to other Smalltalks.

I now intend to go full steam ahead and use Tirade as a file format for Deltas in the DeltaStreams project. We will see how it turns out when put to some real world usage.